Aeschines said to him, “I am a poor man and have nothing else to give, but I offer you myself,” and Socrates answered, “Nay, do you not see that you are offering me the greatest gift of all?” To one complained that he was overlooked when the Thirty rose to power, he said, “You are not sorry for that, are you?” To one who said, “You are condemned by the Atheniansn to die,: he made answer, “So are they , by nature.” But some ascribe this Anazagoras. That will tell you if and how it is to be verified [determined to be true or false], if it is verifiable [if 'truth' and 'falsity' are applicable to it]. He could afford to despise those who scoffed at him. (tr. (Vortex or Whirl is the new god worshipped in Socrates' "Thinking-house" ["School of Hard (or, very Difficult) Thinking"] in Aristophanes' The Clouds.) With this Demetrius of Phalerum agrees: but some say he was sixty when he died. Filosoffen Sokrates er Athens mest omstridte mand. This then is the order which I shall follow. Both were pupils of Anaxagoras, I mean Socrates and Euripides ... (Diog. Todd renders Socrates' answer: "Mankind at large is what I wish to deal and associate with; and so I have got her, well assured that if I can endure her, I shall have no difficulty in my relations with all the rest of human kind. Allt sem er vitað um hann kemur aðallega úr ritum Platons (aðrar heimildir eru Aristófanes og Xenófon).Við hann er kennd „sókratísk kaldhæðni“. Even in Xenophon where the good is identified with the useful (Memorabilia iv, 6, 7-8, and iii, 8, 7), the most important part of a thing's goodness is not its practical usefulness, but rather its usefulness -- i.e. For Socrates, the latter: The wisest words a man can say are 'I don't know'.). The Greek word Hicks translates as "archetype" is transcribed paradeigma. But of course that is not the end of Socrates' godly freedom, because the man who is not free of ignorance is in bondage to it, and further if, as Socrates argues in Xenophon virtue is knowledge ("wisdom"), wrong-doing is ignorance of the good and therefore ignorance of how man should live his life, and bondage to wrong-living (wrong-doing, evil) is the worst bondage of all. uttering undefined sounds), then ... what is he doing? Diogenes Laertios’ Platonbiografi (bog 3.1-47) oversat af Jørgen Mejer Der var tidligt interesse for at skrive en biografi over Platon, men ingen af disse bio-grafier er blevet overleveret til eftertiden. i, 14, 18), -- if by 'philosophy' was, as I think, originally meant all the branches of higher learning (the intellectual arts in contrast to gymnastics and crafts), although later only three parts --, and, from that point of view, no one introduced Socrates to philosophy; he had no teacher. oli antiikin Kreikassa Ateenassa vaikuttanut filosofi.Hän on yksi kaikkien aikojen merkittävimpiä filosofeja, ja häneen viitataan usein koko länsimaisen filosofian isänä. Demetrius of Byzantium relates that Crito removed him from his workshop and educated him, being struck by his beauty of soul; the he discussed moral questions in the workshops and the market-place, being convinced that the study of nature is no concern of ours; and that he claimed that his inquiries embraced. (Diog. But if "virtue is knowledge" and "vice is ignorance", then why am I overcome by this passion? Ion of Chios related that in his youth he visited Samos in the company of Archelause; and Aristotle that he went to Delphi; he went also to the Isthmus, according to Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia. L. ii, 20); Socrates introduced ethics ("no small matter, but how to live," Plato calls it) into "philosophy" (ibid. Harvard University Press. a Possibly the reference is to the same citation as in § 19 which Diogenes Laertius may have found independently in two of his authorities. He took care to exercise his body and kept in good condition. In the Classical Dictionary (circa 1891) of Seyffert, Nettleship and Sandys, it says, "The only occasion when Socrates was absent from Athens, except with the Army, was to attend this festival" -- i.e. Wittgenstein's Logic of Language | Bibliography | Site map - pages about Socrates. National Endowment for the Humanities Division of Preservation and Access provided support for entering this text. Outline of this page... Socrates, ethics, death, and life when he calls a craftsman wise. A dialog is a discourse consisting of question and answer on some philosophical or political subject, with due regard for the characters of the persons introduced and the choice of diction. ), [Mathematics is a Rationalism that does not treat its own axioms as doubtful. Not only in the case of Socrates but in very many others the Athenians repented in 50 drachmae for a madman, and said Tyrtaeus was beside himself, and they honoured Astydamas before Aeschylus and his brother poets with a bronze statute. (Diog. Σωκράτης, Sōkratēs; 470/469–399 eaa.) 7 Hom. R.D. When his wife said, “you suffer unjustly,” he retorted, “Why would you have me suffer justly?” He had a dream that someone said to him: On the third day thou shalt come to the fertile fields of Phthia; And he told Aeschines, “On the third day I shall die.” When he was about to drink the hemlock, Apollodorus offered him a beautiful garment to die in: “What,” said he, “is my own good enough to live in but not to die in?” When he was told that So-and-so spoke ill of him, he replied, “True, for he has never learnt to speak well.” When Antisthenes turned his cloak so that the tear in it came into view, “I see,” said he, “your vanity through your cloak.” To one, who said, “Don’t you find so-and-so very offensive?” his reply was, “No, for it takes two to make a quarrel.” We ought not to object, he used to say, to be subjects for the Comic poets, for it they satirize out faults they will do us good, and if not they do not touch us. The following is in fact a description of how Plato uses the word 'wisdom', not of "what Plato considers wisdom to really be" or "what Plato thinks true wisdom is". Zum Beispiel Sokrates Rezeption und Transformation der Vitae philosophorum des Diogenes Laertios im Florenz des 15. Annars staðar kemur fram að Proxenos hafi einfaldlega boðið Xenófóni, árið 401 f.Kr., að taka þátt í herferð sem hann var sjálfur að fara í. Listed in Artur Biedl, Zur Textgeschichte des Laertios Diogenes: Das grosse Exzerpt Φ, Città del Vaticano, 1955 (“Studi e Testi,” 184), pp. to know of this idea a priori, independently of experience], to answer him by what right she thinks anything to be so constituted, that if that thing be posited, something else also must necessarily be posited; for this is the meaning of the concept of cause.... the suggestion of David Hume was the very thing, which many years ago first interrupted my dogmatic slumber, and gave my investigations in the field of speculative philosophy quite a new direction", tr. Ask. He used to say that he most enjoyed the food which was least in need of condiment, and drink which made him feel the least hankering for some other drink ... (ii, 27; cf. In Plato's Euthydemus 272c: "... Connus, Metrobius' son the harpist, who is now still trying to teach me to play the harp; the boys, my schoolfellows, look on and laugh at me and call Connus "old Gaffer-Teacher"!" [But does Plato "believe in" souls? L. ii, 28), Unlike most philosophers, he had no need to travel, except when required to go on an [military] expedition [The expeditions were to Amphipolis, Delium, and Potidaea. And Anaxagoras' subject was the study nature or "physics" -- i.e. the discussion of "Socratic irony" --], preferring to make his friends companions in investigation [--(Xenophon, Memorabilia iv, 6, 1) investigations which he used his method of thesis, cross-question and answer, i.e. Socrates had died about six hundred year earlier, in 399 B.C. Dialectic is the art of discourse by which we either refute or establish some proposition by means of question and answer on the part of the interlocutors. Of those who bear the name of Socrates there is one, a historian, who wrote a geographical work upon Argos; another, a Peripathetic philosopher of Bithynia; a third, a poet who wrote epigrams; lastly, Socrates of Cos, who wrote on the names of gods. Audio. (ii, 22; cf. ), general og forfatter, skrev en række mindre skrifter om Sokrates. Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; 200-luku) kuuluu merkittävimpiin antiikin ajalla eläneisiin filosofien elämäkertojen kirjoittajiin. Cambridge. 86b-c), for the same reason that it is nonsense to say that the body is a musical instrument -- but what is not nonsense is to say that the soul or the body is like this or that in some way or other. philosophy? I think that my angry reaction is justified although I say it is not. When Xanthippe first scolded him and then drenched him with water, his rejoiner was, “Did I not say that Xanthippe’s thunder would end in rain?” When Alcibiades declared that the scolding of Xanthippe was intolerable, “Nay, I have got used to it,” said he, “as to the continued rattle of a windlass. But Socrates himself was not a cosmologist. Moreover, in his old age he learnt to play the lyre, declaring that he saw no absurdity in learning a new accomplishment. line 362] (Diog. It is not the meaning I invented for Hume's idea. (Diog. The speech was written by Polycrates the sophist, according to Hermippus; but some say that it was by Anytus. metaphysical (e.g. Again [as in Diog. But is not Plato's picture an instance of Rationalism -- because he presents philosophical-logical arguments -- i.e. 3 Díógenes Laertios 2.49-50. Remarkably, the exact words of Socrates’s indictment have been preserved through quotation by the Greek biographer Diogenes Laërtios (who lived in around the third century CE) in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 2.5.40. I don't know. (ii, 31). L. ii, 25; variation: "So many things I do not need!"). And he says the Idea is neither in motion nor at rest; that it is uniformly the same and yet both one and many. But was that Anaxagoras' meaning: that the arrangement of things emerges from chaos? Xenophon, Memorabilia i, 3, 5), Often when he looked at the multitude of wares exposed for sale, he would say to himself, "How many things I can do without!" No, philosophical beliefs are the product of reason (of reasoning as well as we are able, Phaedo 107b); they are not belief-in.]. You come to join us, Socrates, worthiest of a small band and emptiest by far! These strangers are ... imaginary characters without names, for, even when Socrates and Timaeus are the speakers, it is Plato's doctrines that are laid down. According to Aristotle, Socrates also visited Delphi. "What is the true nature of wisdom?") Quote. Is that metaphysical speculation? To each of the works [of Plato] Thrasylus affixes a double title, the one taken from the name of the interlocutor, the other from the subject. And in a general sense all experience is also termed by him wisdom, e.g. For instance, he calls the Idea  "form", "genus", "archetype", "principle", and "cause". Most proper to man is reason (in contrast to instinct or thoughtlessness); reason is the tool he must use to discover the life that is the good for himself ("Know thyself"), e.g. Grid View List View. L. ii, 22 [But Socrates took only so much exercise as was beneficial to his ethical well-being ("soul") (Memorabilia i, 2, 4)]), He was so orderly in his way of life that on several occasions when pestilence broke out in Athens he was the only man who escaped infection. And yet, hungry as he is, this man has never stooped to flatter. L. ii, 23), When Xanthippe was chiding Socrates for making scanty preparation for entertaining his friends, he answered: -- "If they are friends of ours, they will not care for that; if they are not, we shall care nothing for them!" Hicks. Lysias said, “If it is a fine speech, how can it fail to suit you?” “Well,” he replied, “would not fine raiment and fine shoes be just as unsuitable to me?”, Justus of Tiberias in his book entitled The Wreath says that in the course of the trial Plato mounted the platform and began: “Though I am the youngest, men of Athens, of all who ever rose to address you”-whereupon the judges shouted out, “Get down! There is, he said only one good, that is, knowledge, and only one evil, that is, ignorance; wealth and good birth bring their possessor no dignity, but on the contrary evil. Aristotle gives us the general statement that "it was the practice of Socrates to ask questions but not to give answers, for he confessed what he did not know" (Soph. (Note: it was not Plato's view that his "theory of Forms" is so entirely consistent with experience that it cannot be falsified.)]. Here follows a strange statement, and a possible example: Plato has employed a variety of terms in order to make his system less intelligible to the ignorant. Anaxagoras had been fined for teaching "new doctrines about things above" (Plutarch, Pericles) and had left Athens, but unlike Socrates he had not been born there but in Clazomenae, in Ionia. ], Wittgenstein classified the word 'soul' among the superstition words. Where can we get you a proper coat?B. L. ii, 37), He used to say ... that he knew nothing except just the fact of his ignorance. (Diog. Certainly not, said he. Socrates created no cosmology, although Plato did (Aristotle, Metaphysics 1078a). He used to say ... that he knew nothing except just the fact of his ignorance. At all events he served on the expedition to Amphipolis; and when in the battle stepped in and saved his life. He prided himself on his plain living, and never asked a fee from anyone. He was a man of great independence and dignity of character. Ta sai oma ... II raamatu teemaks on Sokrates ning tema eelkäijad ja järgijad. If Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, of Alopece (Gorgias 495d; Diog. Xenophon does not actually mention Socrates's well-known confession of his own ignorance ... but he does show him disclaiming the part of a teacher [-- i.e. For Plato the usefulness of eating is to silence the body -- for otherwise the body "takes away from us the power of thinking at all" (Phaedo 66b-d, tr. He took care to exercise his body and kept in good condition. C.E. he reply was, "No, for it takes two to make a quarrel." But philosophy is not mathematical; the subject matter of metaphysics -- namely, reality -- is independent of philosophers' equations. In his later work Wittgenstein talks about philosophy and grammar, not, engaged all the more keenly in argument with anyone who would converse with him, his aim being not to alter his [companion's] opinion but to get at the truth. (Cf. When Anaxagoras was condemned, he became a pupil of Archelaus the physicist; Aristoxenus asserts that Archelaus was very fond of him. Robinson says that the Greek word for 'leisure' is scholê, from which comes our word 'school' (Hellas, Introduction, p. 10). (Diog. That lesson in wisdom appears very difficult to learn, because when a donkey -- or even a donkey's shadow (There was a Greek expression "not worth a donkey's shadow", and foolish words are the shadow of vice, as the man intent on vicious deeds is the donkey itself) -- kicks me I often seem unable to stop myself from kicking it back -- i.e. He roused I phicrates the general to a martial spirit by showing him how the fighting cocks of Midias the barber flapped their wings in defiance of those of Callian. This text was converted to electronic form by Data Entry and has been proofread to a low level of accuracy. He used to say that he most enjoyed the food which was least in need of condiment, and the drink which made him feel the least hankering for some other drink; and that he was nearest to the gods in that he had the fewest wants. He was a man of great independence and dignity of character. n. l. Diogenes Laertius Varianta: [H]e was nearest to the gods in that he had the fewest wants. Thrasyllus of Alexandria died in 36 A.D. So says the entry in the Oxford Classical Dictionary 2nd ed. (Here the notation for distinguishing between a sign and its use in the language shows its usefulness. unknowingly done -- as self-deception can be.). Even his real name is in question, as some scholars have suggested Laertius is a pen-name chosen to distinguish himself from the numerous other persons named Diogenes at the time. Wittgenstein's student Drury believed in an afterlife (heaven), and how can that mean anything except belief in souls (DW p. 88)? There is a religious picture of the soul, and that picture is one meaning of the word 'soul'. das urteil und andere prosa von franz kafka buch thalia. The rest of his life he stayed at home and engaged all the more keenly in argument with anyone who would converse with him, his aim being not to alter his [companion's] opinion but to get at the truth. – 7.maí 399 f.Kr.) He said that, when people paid a high price for fruit which had ripened early, they must despair of seeing the fruit ripen at the proper season. (Fragment from Maximus, tr. 183b6-8) ... (Guthrie, Socrates (1971) iii, 5, p. 123-124), [Related pages: "Socratic ignorance", and Socrates and Apollo's Oracle at Delphi, and Flute-girls and Socrates.]. Care of this soul is the highest good for man. Plato's Apology 26d-e says that Anaxagoras' book cost "a drachma at most", or, 6 obols, 2 to 3 times the poorest Athenians' daily wages, but half or less of the daily income of a skilled workman. Because "I don't know" ≠ 'I don't know'. derives one rather-vague-in-meaning proposition from other propositions (OC § 1) that the soul is "a something distinct from the body"? Although the movement of a whirlpool may cause chaos, the movement itself is not chaotic. What is the proposition's meaning? Indeed, that may be the meaning of 'stupid' in philosophy -- namely, superficial. These strangers are ... imaginary characters without names, for, even when Socrates and Timaeus are the speakers, it is Plato's doctrines that are laid down. ", He said he lived with a shrew "... so [that thereby] I in the society of Xanthippe shall learn to adapt myself to the rest of the world." soner i samtiden. Platon (ned-)skrev desuden Sokrates' Forsvarstale. Sokrates, therefore, met them in a shop near the Agora, according to Xenophon (Memorabilia 4.21), and Diogenes Laertios preserves the name of Simon as the owner of the establishment where these meetings took place: "Simon, an Athenian, a shoemaker. Thus Aristophanes: O man that justly desirest great wisdom, how blessed will be thy life amongst Athenians and Greeks, retentive of memory and thinker that thou art, with endurance of toil for thy character; never art thou weary whether standing or walking, never numb with cold, never hungry for breakfast; from wine and from gross feeding and all other frivolities thou dost turn away. if the Question of Providence belongs to Cosmology ... Plato's "treatment of themes Socrates disowned", The nature of sensible objects and of the Ideas (Forms), Thrasylus of Alexandria's classification scheme, The Subject Names of the Dialogs (and their type), bad habits acquired in the time of ignorance of the good, Socrates does not think he knows what he does not know, the question of meaning comes before the question of truth, https://www.roangelo.net/logwitt/diogenes-socrates.html. consolidated the important new insight that Diogenes Laertios was not the mindless and untrustworthy copier he has so long been taken for by nineteenth- and twentieth-century scholarship; thus, it has been demonstrated that the standard ancient technique of ex-cerpting - …

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