[24], The Urals have been viewed by Russians as a "treasure box" of mineral resources, which were the basis for its extensive industrial development. Many old ironworks were reconstructed and a number of new ones were built. Modest in scale, they nevertheless proved to be rich in resources, and when Russia stumbled onto this Aladdin’s cave full of lustrous treasures many centuries ago, the mineral riches filled the coffers and allowed Russia to … This is because of low precipitation and the relatively warm climate resulting in less snow and more evaporation. Western Ural contains deposits of coal, oil, gas and potassium salts. Whereas in other Ural Mountains areas they grow up to the heights of 1 km, the forests cease at 250–400 m in the Polar Urals. [3], Most Ural rivers belong to the basin of the Arctic Ocean. A-4614 Marchtrenk. Moving to the south, the meadow steppes become more sparse, dry and low. The name probably originated from Turkic "aral". Transportation of the output of the smelting works to the markets of European Russia necessitated the construction of the Siberian Route from Yekaterinburg across the Ural to Kungur and Yegoshikha (Perm) and further to Moscow, which was completed in 1763 and rendered Babinov's road obsolete. The area was recognized by the Russian government as a strategic source of raw materials. The western areas are dominated by dark coniferous taiga forests which change to mixed and deciduous forests in the south. With the excursions of 1483 and 1499–1500 across the Ural, Moscow managed to subjugate Yugra completely. The line will have a speed of 300 kilometres per hour. The speciality of Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, jasper, rhodonite, malachite and diamond. The rest of the Urals drain into the Arctic Ocean, mainly via the Pechora basin in the west, which includes the Ilych, Shchugor, and the Usa, and via the Ob basin in the east, which includes the Tobol, Tavda, Iset, Tura and Severnaya Sosva. [23] The eastern slopes of the Southern and Central Urals have most of these, among the largest of which are the Uvildy, Itkul, Turgoyak, and Tavatuy lakes. History of human settlement in the Ural Mountains, "Урал (географич.) The October Revolution brought numerous benefits to the workers, but was followed by the years of Civil Wars (1917–19). The first Russian mention of the mountains to the east of the East European Plain is provided by the Primary Chronicle, where it describes the Novgorodian expedition to the upper reaches of the Pechora in 1096. The range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass. The end of 19th century saw a rapid growth of the Ural cities and of the anti-capitalist movements. Its construction is expected to start in 2021. The president of the company is Andrew Kozitsin. Ural Interregional Research and Education Center ‘Advanced Industrial Technologies and Materials’ Center will unify scientific potential of Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions. Other notable peaks lie along the Iremel mountain ridge (Bolshoy Iremel and Maly Iremel). [1][13][14] In 1990, efforts were underway to contain the radiation in one of the lakes, which was estimated at the time to expose visitors to 500 millirem per day. [1][4], The Nether-Polar Ural are higher, and up to 150 km (93 mi) wider than the Polar Urals. In the more northerly regions, dark conifers are common, and, in the Northern Urals, the Siberian cedar is widespread. He sacrificed his life for the sake of his people, and they poured a stone pile over his grave, which later turned into the Ural Mountains. Marking the border between Europe and Asia, the Ural Mountains (Урал) stretch from the Kara Sea in the north to Kazakhstan in the south. The river valleys are underlain by limestone. The average January temperatures increase in the western areas from −20 °C (−4 °F) in the Polar to −15 °C (5 °F) in the Southern Urals and the corresponding temperatures in July are 10 °C (50 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F). Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain on the north. The Stroganovs' land provided the staging ground for Yermak's incursion into Siberia. It is considered a part of Eurasian Steppe, extending approximately from the North to the South; from the Arctic Ocean to the end of Ural River near Orsk city. They have high and long (2–3 months) floods in May–June (June–July in the Polar Ural). Heimat im Ural. To the south, the meadow steppes become more sparse, dry and low. They became active around the 14th century when a number of settlements were established in the Northern Ural and attributed to Veliky Novgorod. Over the next century, the region was studied by scientists from a number of countries, including Russia (geologist Alexander Karpinsky, botanist Porfiry Krylov and zoologist Leonid Sabaneyev), the United Kingdom (geologist Sir Roderick Murchison), France (paleontologist Édouard de Verneuil), and Germany (naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, geologist Alexander Keyserling). This word literally means "island" and was used for any territory different from the surrounding terrain. [4], The table (see also maps above) reveals that the Ural Federal District and Ural economical region are rather different entities, which geographically differ from the Urals, even though the Urals is not well defined geographically. [25], The region served as a military stronghold during Peter the Great's Great Northern War with Sweden, during Stalin's rule when the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Complex was built and Russian industry relocated to the Urals during the Nazi advance at the beginning of World War II, and as the center of the Soviet nuclear industry during the Cold War. The development accelerated not only in the traditional gold and platinum industries, but also in the coal mining and engineering. During the next few centuries Novgorodians engaged in fur trading with the local population and collected tribute from Yugra and Great Perm, slowly expanding southwards. While the latter follows the historical borders, the former is a political product; the District omits Western Ural and includes Western Siberia instead. In 1720–1722 he commissioned Vasily Tatishchev to oversee and develop the mining and smelting works in the Ural. Kommt mit auf einen Abendspaziergang entlang der Hauptstrasse. [3], By topography and other natural features, Ural is divided, from north to south, into the Polar (or Arctic), Near-Polar (or Sub-Arctic), Northern, Central and Southern parts. Some rivers have dams forming the Kama and Votkinsk Reservoirs. The company owns about 50 … Grain-based agriculture, small-scale industries (wood, leather, pottery, blacksmithing, etc.) Both factories were actually founded by Tatishchev's successor, Georg Wilhelm de Gennin, in 1723. In the Southern Ural frequent are badger and black polecat. The annual increase of production was about 50%. [3] Ural mostly lies within Russia but also includes a small part of Northwestern Kazakhstan. During the war, Ural accounted for 40% of the Soviet military production. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite, nickel oxide, gold, platinum, chromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal (Chelyabinsk Oblast), bauxite, talc, fireclay and abrasives. As Russians in other regions gather mushrooms or berries, Uralians gather mineral specimens and gems. Since c. 1850 most cartographers have regarded the Urals and the Ural River to the south of them as the eastern boundary of Europe, geographically recognized as a subcontinent of Eurasia . The daytime temperature is going to reach -10 °c and the temperature is going to dip to -14 °c at night. [1] The 1957 accident expelled 20 million curies of radioactive material, 90% of which settled into the land immediately around the facility. Their ownership went to the Moscow state in 1471, together with lands around the Kama River. Spas and sanatoriums have been built to take advantage of the medicinal muds found in some of the mountain lakes. The Northern Ural consists of a series of parallel ridges with the height up to 1,000–1,300 m and longitudinal depressions, which are elongated from north to south. After the defeat of Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Russian influence expanded to the most parts of Bashkortostan and Udmurtia. In 1896 this section became a part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Bird species are represented by capercaillie, black grouse, hazel grouse, spotted nutcracker, and cuckoos. At around 9:20 a.m. on Friday, 15 February 2013, an astronomical incident occurred, known as the 2013 Russian meteor event. The highest peak of the Ural, Mount Narodnaya, (elevation 1,895 m (6,217 ft)) was identified in 1927.[12]. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite, nickel oxide, chromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal (Chelyabinsk Oblast), bauxite, gold and platinum. Three Ural's plants gave 66% of Soviet tanks and mobile artillery units. Rivers and lakes are used as a water supply, transport routes and for waterlogging. [14] As of 2006, 500 mrem in the natural environment was the upper limit of exposure considered safe for a member of the general public in an entire year (though workplace exposure over a year could exceed that by a factor of 10). Both Polar and Nether-Polar Urals are typically Alpine; they bear traces of Pleistocene glaciation, along with permafrost and extensive modern glaciation, including 143 extant glaciers. Maximum precipitation occurs in the summer: the winter is dry because of the Siberian High. [4], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}60°00′N 60°00′E / 60.000°N 60.000°E / 60.000; 60.000, Current administrative divisions of Urals, Last edited on 11 December 2020, at 20:09, "Указ Президента РФ от 13 мая 2000 г. N 849 "О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе" (Decree No 849 by the President of Russia on 13 May 2000)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ural_(region)&oldid=993659628, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 20:09. [3][4], Urals contains 48 species of economically valuable ores and minerals. Many lands are cultivated. 08.00 – 12.00 h. 13.00 – 17.00 h About goals and projects; Global-Scale Research. The holding company was formed around joint-stock company Uralelektromed in 1999. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy. Whereas in other parts of the Ural Mountains they grow up to an altitude of 1000 m, in the Polar Urals the tree line is at 250–400 m. The polar forests are low and are mixed with swamps, lichens, bogs and shrubs. Ural Federal District - Overview. As Middle-Eastern merchants traded with the Bashkirs and other people living on the western slopes of the Ural as far north as Great Perm, since at least the 10th century medieval mideastern geographers had been aware of the existence of the mountain range in its entirety, stretching as far as the Arctic Ocean in the north. Davis, W.M. The conservation measures include establishing national wildlife parks. There are many birds of prey such as lesser kestrel and buzzards. Several sites were discovered from the late Paleolithic (35–10 thousand years ago) including the Kapova Cave. The rivers are frozen for more than half the year. They include Tawatui, Argazi, Uvildy and Turgoyak. Rivers are fed by melting snow and precipitations. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between the continents of Europe and Asia. The largest industrial and commercial centers were Perm, Yekaterinburg, Orenburg, Ufa, Kungur and Irbit. Größe Vesuvian : bis zu 0,4cm. (Ural (geographical))", "Military reactors go on show to American visitors", "Mountain building processes during continent–continent collision in the Uralides", "Arrested orogenic development: Eclogitization, delamination, and tectonic collapse", "Insights into orogenesis: Getting to the root of a continent-ocean-continent collision, Southern Urals, Russia", Производство плутония с ПО "Маяк" на Сибирский химкомбинат перенесено не будет, "Three Hundred Years of Glory and Gloom: The Urals Region of Russia in Art and Reality", Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ural_Mountains&oldid=1001509647, Landforms of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Bashkir-language text, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mountain formation near Saranpaul, Nether-Polar Urals, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 00:54. Uralskiye gory, IPA: [ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ]; Bashkir: Урал тауҙары, Ural tauźarı) or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the river Ural and northwestern Kazakhstan. [1] 2 miles and an atmospheric pressure of 1018 mb. [1][4], The steppes of the Southern Urals are dominated by hares and rodents such as hamsters, susliks, and jerboa. In 1725, Philip Johan von Strahlenberg first used the Ural Mountains as part of the eastern demarcation of Europe. A magnified image of one of the nano coils found in the Ural Mountains. This brought a severe industrial crisis, fuel shortages, disruption of transport, reduction of agricultural production and the deterioration of the life conditions. Today, there are two official namesake entities; the Ural Federal District and the Ural economic region. Irbit hosted the biggest fair of the Urals. In the Central Ural, one can meet a rare mixture of sable and pine marten named kidus. [1][4], The mountains contain a number of deep lakes. Schöne kleine Vesuvian-Stufe aus dem Ural in Rußland. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya, approximately 1,895 m (6,217 ft) in elevation.[1]. In 1430, the town of Solikamsk (Kama Salt) was founded on the Kama at the foothills of the Ural, where salt was produced in open pans. [1][4], The climate of the Urals is continental. The specialty of the Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, jasper, rhodonite, malachite and diamond. [7] I.G. Rivers are slower in the Southern Urals. Nevertheless, Ural lost its status of the main metallurgical area to the South of Russia. The modern Russian name for the Urals (Урал, Ural), first appearing in the 16th–17th century when the Russian conquest of Siberia was in its heroic phase, was initially applied to its southern parts and gained currency as the name of the entire range during the 18th century. In 1946, most plants were converted into non-military directions. The steep gravelly slopes of the mountains and hills of the eastern slopes of the Southern Urals are mostly covered with rocky steppes. Welcome to The Urals. The western slopes south of the border between the Komi Republic and Perm Krai and the eastern slopes south of approximately 54°30'N drain into the Caspian Sea via the Kama and Ural basins. [7] Finno-Ugrist scholars consider Ural deriving from the Ostyak word urr meaning "chain of mountains". Bashkirs form the largest indigenous group of the region. They multiplied particularly quickly during the reign of Peter I of Russia. The Western Urals contain deposits of coal, oil, natural gas (Ishimbay and Krasnokamsk areas) and potassium salts. During the Soviet industrialization in the 1930s the city of Magnitogorsk was founded in the South-Eastern Ural as a center of iron smelting and steelmaking. Ural Locomotives (Russian: Уральские локомотивы) is a railway engineering company formed as a joint venture between Sinara Transport Machines and Siemens in 2010. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr. [4] The lakes found on the western slopes are less numerous and also smaller. Download this stock image: Orenburg, eine Stadt zwischen Europa und Asien am Ural in Russland: die Grenzbrücke mit Stelen - T8525N from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Ivan III of Moscow captured Perm, Pechora and Yugra from the declining Novgorod Republic in 1472. The tributaries of the Kama include the Vishera, Chusovaya, and Belaya and originate on both the eastern and western slopes. Ural, Russia visibility is going to be around 4 km i.e. Both slopes are rich in bituminous coal and lignite, and the largest deposit of bituminous coal is in the north (Pechora field). Abundant are dwarf birch, mosses and berries (blueberry, cloudberry, black crowberry, etc.). The eastern slopes are relatively flat, with some hills and rocky outcrops and contain alternating volcanic and sedimentary layers dated to the middle Paleozoic Era. [1], The Ural Mountains contain about 48 species of economically valuable ores and economically valuable minerals. [14][16], The Ural Mountains extend about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) from the Kara Sea to the Kazakh Steppe along the border of Kazakhstan. Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird". Six megaprojects by UrFU and partners focused on … The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. [25], This article is about the land formation. They live in the Southern Ural and speak a language of the Turkic group. [1][4], The Central Ural are the lowest part of the Ural, with smooth mountain tops, the highest mountain being 994 m (3,261 ft) (Basegi); they extend south from the river Ufa. Earlier, in the 17th century, rich ore deposits were discovered in the mountains and their systematic extraction began in the early 18th century, eventually turning the region into the largest mineral base of Russia. The first ample geographic survey of the Ural Mountains was completed in the early 18th century by the Russian historian and geographer Vasily Tatishchev under the orders of Peter I. The eastern mountain slopes have light coniferous taiga forests. The Ural Mountains. By topography and other natural features, the Urals are divided, from north to south, into the Polar (or Arctic), Nether-Polar (or Sub-Arctic), Northern, Central and Southern parts. The highest precipitation, approximately 1,000 mm (39 in), is in the Northern Urals with up to 1,000 cm (390 in) snow. A fiery meteor, roughly 55 feet wide, weighing at least 10,000 tons and travelling at a speed of 30,000 miles per hour, burst through earth's atmosphere over the Ural Mountains. The eastern areas receive from 500–600 mm (20–24 in) in the north to 300–400 mm (12–16 in) in the south. They extend for more than 225 km (140 mi) south to the Shchugor. Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company is a Russian metallurgical company based in Verkhnyaya Pyshma. In the summer, South and Central Urals are visited by songbirds, such as nightingale and redstart. Some of the deposits, such as the magnetite ores at Magnitogorsk, are already nearly depleted. Manufacture of copper and bronze started in the early 2nd millennium BC and production of iron was developed around the 8th–7th centuries BC. This is because the mountains trap clouds from the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers Chusovaya and Belaya were first mentioned in the chronicles of 1396 and 1468, respectively. In the Middle Urals, one can see a rare mixture of sable and pine marten named kidus. It is considered a part of Eurasian Steppe, extending approximately from the North to the South; from the Arctic Ocean to the end of Ural River near Orsk city. [1] Its plants went into operation in 1948 and, for the first ten years, dumped unfiltered radioactive waste into the river Techa and Lake Karachay. The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. In the 1840s, regular commercial navigation started on the Kama River. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the … In particular, those entities include parts of Volga and Siberia, and do not include areas belonging to Kazakhstan. In Bashkortostan there is a 13th-century legend about a hero named Ural . [15] Over 23,000 km2 (8,900 sq mi) of land were contaminated in 1957 from a storage tank explosion, only one of several serious accidents that further polluted the region. The maximum height is 1,640 m (5,380 ft) (Mount Yamantau) and the width reaches 250 km (160 mi). It has been mined since 1747. The animals of the Polar Urals are few and are characteristic of the tundra; they include Arctic fox, lemming, and reindeer. Yermak crossed the Ural from the Chusovaya to the Tagil around 1581. The Northern Ural is dominated by Siberian species of fir, cedar, spruce and pine. The maximum height is 1,499 m (4,918 ft) at Payer Mountain and the average height is 1,000 to 1,100 m (3,300 to 3,600 ft). The news media reported that the meteor's deafening shock wave packed the punch of a 500-kiloton explosion, and was so powerful that it shattered windows and collapsed walls, damaging 4,000 buildings and injuring 1,491 people, the majority of whom were caught in the shards of flying glass. Steppes lie mostly in the southern and especially south-eastern Urals. The salt industry was developed in Solikamsk. It has eventually replaced the Ufa – Chelyabinsk section as the main trunk of the Trans-Siberian railway. It is the second largest copper producer in Russia. The indigenous population of the Polar Urals consists of the Nenets and Samoyedic peoples who are widespread through the Siberia and have their own languages. [4] The Virgin Komi Forests in the northern Urals are recognized as a World Heritage site. The average January temperatures increase in the western areas from –20 °C in the Polar to –15 °C in the Southern Urals and the corresponding temperatures in July are 10 °C and 20 °C. [1][4], One of the first scientific descriptions of the mountains was published in 1770–71. The sedimentary and volcanic layers are folded and faulted. Posikunchiki. Population exodus resulted, and economic depression at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, but in post-Soviet times additional mineral exploration, particularly in the northern Urals, has been productive and the region has attracted industrial investment. Employees work at the Ural Automotive Plant (UralAZ) in the town of Miass in the Ural mountains, Russia, March 22, 2016. The Ural Mountains or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the river Ural and northwestern Kazakhstan. Most of the tops are flattened, but those of the highest mountains, such as Telposiz, 1,617 m (5,305 ft) and Konzhakovsky Stone, 1,569 m (5,148 ft) have a dissected topography. After the war, in 1947–1948, Chum – Labytnangi railway, built with the forced labor of Gulag inmates, crossed the Polar Ural. A modern shop design which breaks with the tradition of common web shops allows our customers to access either with the still popular WindowsXP (min. Customs was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time. In 1745 gold was discovered in the Ural at Beryozovskoye and later at other deposits. Mon 18/01 A belt of low mountains and plateaus 1,150 to 1,500 feet (350 to 460 metres) high flanks the Ural Mountains proper along the eastern edge of the Russian Plain. The first railway across the Ural had been built by 1878 and linked Perm to Yekaterinburg via Chusovoy, Kushva and Nizhny Tagil. The areas west to the Ural Mountains are 1–2 °C warmer in winter than the eastern regions because the former are warmed by the Atlantic winds whereas the eastern slopes are chilled by the Siberian air masses. [1], From the 11th century, the region of the Ural Mountains was called Kamyen' (Камень, "the Stone") by Russians. In summers, the South and Middle Urals are visited by songbirds, such as nightingale and redstart. Meadow steppes have developed in the lower parts of mountain slopes and are covered with various clovers, daisies, filipendula, meadow-grass and foxtail millet, reaching the height of 60–80 cm. The southern rivers – Ural, Kama, Belaya and Chusovaya Rivers – belong to the Caspian Sea basin. The birds of these areas include rough-legged buzzard, snowy owl, tundra partridge, and rock ptarmigan.[1][4]. The main owner of the company is Uzbek billionaire Iskander Makhmudov. They include Tobol, Iset, Tura, Pechora, Lozva and Severnaya Sosva Rivers. During World War II, hundreds of factories were evacuated from Western Russia before the German occupation, flooding the Urals with industry. It offers free WiFi. REUTERS/Alexander Winning ''Nizhny-Tagil Factory Pond and Lisya Mountain in the Middle Urals''. The highest precipitation (1000 mm) is in the Northern Ural that causes the average height of snow up to 90 cm. T. +43 7243 21 510 +43 7243 21 515 Öffnungszeiten: Mo – Fr. The long-term exploitation of the factory workers resulted in establishment of Social Democratic committees demanding improvements of working conditions. [3], The Northern Urals is home to Uralic speaking people like Udmurts, Mari, Komi, Mansi and Khanty people. Those activities peaked around the period of the political collapse of the 1910s in Russia. Mining, metallurgy, and manufacturing form the core of the Ural’s production output – all vital for Russia’s economic health. and a network of markets spread over Ural. Trade activity is heating up across the province. They have rich resources, including metal ores, coal, and precious and semi-precious stones. The population of all cities and urban settlements in the Ural Federal District with more than 20,000 inhabitants according to census results and latest official estimates. Ural definition: a river in central Russia , rising in the S Ural Mountains and flowing south to the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Farther to the north, in the Central Urals, boreal forests (taiga) of spruce, fir, pine, and larch grow on the mountain, podzolic soils. Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak (1852–1912) Pavel Bazhov (1879–1950), as well as Aleksey Ivanov and Olga Slavnikova, post-Soviet writers, have written of the region. The manufacturing facilities are based at the Ural Railway Engineering Plant in Verkhnyaya Pyshma, which was incorporated into the Sinara Group in 2004.. Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: During the month of June, July and August you are most likely to experience good weather with pleasant average temperatures that fall between 20 degrees Celsius (68°F) and 25 degrees Celsius (77°F). The polar forests are low and are mixed with swamps, lichens, bogs and shrubs. Lake Bolshoye Shchuchye, the deepest lake in the Polar Urals, is 136 meters (446 ft) deep. The largest lakes are on the east of the Central and Southern Urals. They include the highest peaks of the range: Mount Narodnaya (1,895 m (6,217 ft)), Mount Karpinsky (1,878 m (6,161 ft)) and Manaraga (1,662 m (5,453 ft)). The many ridges are sawtooth shaped and dissected by river valleys. This is a historical, not an official entity, with borders overlapping its Western Volga and Eastern Siberia neighboring regions. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941–1942, the mountains became a key element in Nazi planning for the territories which they expected to conquer in the USSR. URAL Motorcycles GmbH. The relief of Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and ridges directed south-west and meridionally. Austria E. office@ural.at. [3], The climate of Ural is continental. The overall resulting damage from the shock wave was estimated at $33,000,000. Southern Ural is most diverse in the forest composition; here together with coniferous forests also abundant are other tree species such as larch, oak, birch, maple and elm. The western areas also received more rainfall than the eastern ones by 150–300 mm per year. Between January-March 2017, total trade turnover into the Urals rose $101.1 million against 2016’s levels to hit a high of $2.2 billion. The mountain ridges, elongated from north to south, effectively absorb sunlight thereby increasing the temperature. The Ural forests are inhabited by animals typical of Siberia, such as elk, brown bear, fox, wolf, wolverine, lynx, squirrel, and sable (north only). Extreme levels of air, water, and radiological contamination and pollution by industrial wastes resulted. In the Southern Urals, badger and black polecat are common. The border between Europe and Asia runs along the Eastern side of the Ural Mountains. Around the same time, farming and animal husbandry develop in the Southern Ural. My name is Max, I'm from Yekaterinburg. [3], At the beginning of the 2nd millennium, the primitive society of Ural started transforming to feudal relations. In 1920–21, the industrial production was at the 12% level of that in 1913, but by 1925–26 it recovered to 93% and in 1937 reached 700%. Of the people injured, 311 were children who were at school at the time. Bird species are represented by capercaillie, black grouse, hazel grouse, spotted nutcracker and cuckoos. [4], The western slope of the Ural Mountains has predominantly karst topography, especially in the Sylva basin, which is a tributary of the Chusovaya. River valleys contain willow, poplar and caragana shrubs.[4]. The first people appeared on the Ural at the end of the Early Paleolithic period (about 75 thousand years ago). There are many caves, sinkholes and underground streams. [1][10] In 1845, Murchison, who had according to Encyclopædia Britannica "compiled the first geologic map of the Ural in 1841",[1] published The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains with de Verneuil and Keyserling.[10][11]. It might have been borrowed from either Turkic "stone belt"[2] (Bashkir, where the same name is used for the range), or Ob-Ugric.