The office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. In 1362–63 he joined his father in a futile revolt against King David II, who both imprisoned him and created him earl of … Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Robert joined a rebellion against David in 1363, but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. It covers the reigns of the first two Stewarts, Robert II and Robert III, 1371-1406. Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. [69] Modern historians show a kingdom that had become wealthier and more stable particularly during the first decade of his rule. John is a son-in-law to the latter and serves him as a diplomat. Robert took refuge in the fortress of Dumbarton Castle in the Clyde estuary to join his uncle, King David. The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. These complaints damaged the king's standing within the Council leading to criticism of his ability to curb Buchan's activities. He not only had two wives who had numerous children but many mistresses who had babies as well. Throughout his reign, Robert spent long periods in his Gaelic heartlands and complaints at the time in Lowland Scotland seem to have been influenced by the view that the king was too much involved in Gaelic concerns. At this time, none of his sons had heirs so it became necessary for a system to be devised to define precisely the circumstances in which each of his sons could inherit the crown—none of this would take precedence over normal succession by Primogeniture. Douglas died without an heir, which led to various claims upon the title and estate—Carrick backed Malcolm Drummond, the husband of Douglas's sister, while Fife sided with the successful appellant, Sir Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway who possessed an entail on the Douglas estates. Their son became Robert II, the first Stewart king. [18] Murray was appointed Guardian at Dunfermline during the winter of 1335–6 while he was besieging Cupar Castle in Fife. [76] Influential magnate coalitions headed by Carrick, having undermined the king's position, manipulated the Council of November 1384 to effectively oust Robert II from any real power. [77] Yet power was not handed back to Robert II but to Carrick's younger brother, Robert, earl of Fife which once again saw the king at the disposition of one of his sons. Potential photos and documents for Robert II Stewart King of Scotland No images were found for this exact name. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327,[9] and the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer,[2] who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, and William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Lady Jean was the granddaughter of Sir Walter Stewart and Margory de Brus, Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan and … [68] Similarly, Nicholson described Robert's reign as deficient and that his lack of the skills of governance led to internal strife. Ex-partner of Mariota Cardney Signification that although Elizabeth Mor and Isabella Boutellier, noble damsels of the diocese of Glasgow, are related in the third and fourth degrees of kindred, Robert Steward of Scotland, lord of Stragrifis, in the diocese of Glasgow, the king's nephew, carnally knew first Isabella, and afterwards, in ignorance of their kindred, Elizabeth, who was herself related to Robert in the fourth degree of kindred, living with her for some time and having many children of both sexes by her; the above king and bishops therefore pray the pope that for the sake of the said offspring, who are fair to behold (aspectibus gratiose), to grant a dispensation to Robert and Elizabeth to intermarry, and to declare their offspring legitimate. [77] Grant gives little weight to the asserted senility of Robert, and suggests that the deposition of Carrick in 1388, and then the resolution to join the Anglo-French truce of 1389, were both at the instigation of Robert II. [5] The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir. Full scale war broke out in 1385 as a by-product of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. He grew up in his ancestral lands in the west and was completely at ease with the Gaelic language and culture and possessed a potent relationship with the Gaelic lords in the Hebrides, upper Perthshire and Argyll. Nicholson asserts that the Earl of Douglas was bought off following his armed demonstration just before Robert's coronation, and associates this with the doubt surrounding the legitimacy of Robert's sons with Elizabeth Mure. The tale takes place in the reign of Robert II whose "country enjoyed happiness and peace, all save a part adjoining to the borders of England." Marjorie by this time had died in a riding accident - probably in 1317. [26], Even though an English prisoner, David retained influence in Scotland and Robert had his Guardianship removed by parliament and given jointly to the earls of Mar and Ross and the lord of Douglas—this did not last and Robert was once again appointed Guardian by the Parliament of February 1352. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, assisted by the English and Scottish nobles disinherited by Robert I, invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333. [11] In a charter dated 25 July 1378 the king decreed that Coldingham Priory would no longer be a daughter house of the English Durham Priory but was to be attached to Dunfermline Abbey. was born 1316; declared heir to the throne of Scotland 1318, created Earl of Atholl (S.)1342, and Earl of Strathearn (S.)1358, succeeded to throne in 1371 on the death of his uncle, King David II. He died 19 April 1390 in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and lies buried at Scone Abbey. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage. Margaret, married John of Islay, Lord of the Isles. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. King Robert II has also many illegitimate children with several mistresses, including four sons with his favorite Mariota de Cardeny, daughter of Sir John Cardeny, and widow of Alexander Mac Naugthon: By Moira Leitch (according to tradition): Robert II has been depicted in historical novels. [44] In June 1371, Robert agreed to a defensive treaty with the French, and although there were no outright hostilities during 1372, the English garrisons were reinforced and placed under an increased state of vigilance. [8] On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and eventually succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself. The first monarch of the House of Stewart, Robert II, King of Scots, was born at Paisley Abbeyon March 2, 1316. Scotland became involved through assistance to France. [75] As far as William, Earl of Douglas's reaction was concerned when he staged an armed demonstration before Robert's coronation, Grant does not hold to the view that Douglas was in some way demonstrating against Robert's legitimate right to the throne, but more an assertion that royal patronage should not continue as in the time of David II. New Series, 38 volumes, 1884-1922. Robert had married her in 1336, but as the marriage had been criticised as uncanonical, he remarried her in 1349. Robert succeeded in regaining his lands but following Randolph's capture by the English in July 1335, his possessions were once again targeted by the forces of Balliol and King Edward III of England. [84], From this union, ten children reached adulthood:[85], In 1355, Robert married his second wife Euphemia de Ross (died 1387), daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross. [72] Contrary to Froissart's view, the early Scottish chroniclers—Andrew of Wyntoun and Walter Bower (who both utilised a source that was nearly contemporary with Robert II)—and later 15th and 16th century Scottish chroniclers and poets showed 'Robert II as a Scottish patriotic hero, a defender of the integrity of the Scottish kingdom, and as the direct heir to Robert I'. In particular, George Dunbar's brother John Dunbar, the Lord of Fife who lost his claim on Fife and Sir Robert Erskine's son, Sir Thomas Erskine who lost control of Edinburgh Castle. [19] Murray's campaign put an end to any chance of Edward III having full lasting control over the south of Scotland and Edward's failure in the six-month siege of Dunbar Castle confirmed this. [51] Carrick and James, Earl of Douglas (his father William had died in April),[52] wanted a retaliatory strike for the Gaunt raid. [12] Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated. [39] Robert's accession did affect some others who held offices from David II. Generation No. 1 p. 93 fn. Robert II died in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and was buried at Scone Abbey. [11] Very few other strongholds remained in Scottish hands in the winter of 1333—only the castles of Kildrummy (held by Christian Bruce, elder sister of Robert I and wife of Andrew Murray of Bothwell), Loch Leven, Loch Doon, and Urquhart held out against Balliol forces. She was nineteen at the time of her death, like her mother, who was also nineteen years old when she died in childbirth. [79], Michael Lynch points out that Robert II's reign from 1371 until the lieutenancy of Carrick in 1384 had been one exemplified by continued prosperity and stability - a time which Abbot Bower described as a period of "tranquility, prosperity and peace". Johanna (Jean), married Sir John Keith (died 1375), then John Lyon, Lord of Glamis (died 1383) and finally Sir James Sandilands. Before moving to Robert's current city of Fredericksburg, VA, Robert lived in Reedville VA and Kilmarnock VA. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327,[10] and the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer,[3] who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, and William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. They had four children: David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, born about 1356 and died in 1389. He was the grandson of King Robert "The Bruce", but is described as lacking the courage and vigour of his grandfather. [11] Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was also taking refuge. He was also known as Robert, High Steward of Scots and by his Gaelic Name, Roibert II Stiùbhairt. By 1354 ongoing negotiations for the king's release reached the stage where a proposal of a straight ransom payment of 90,000 marks to be repaid over nine years, guaranteed by the provision of 20 high-ranking hostages, was agreed—this understanding was destroyed by Robert when he bound the Scots to a French action against the English in 1355. Lady Diana's 17-Great Grandfather. An ungoverned Scotland is ravaged by their conflicts. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar. [85] Marriages and issue[edit] In 1336, he first married Elizabeth Mure (died 1355), daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan. This indicated that a central decision had probably been taken for the escalation of conflict rather than the previous small-scale marauding attacks by the border barons. http://renovationbootcamp.com/personal-haunted-house-experience-scotland/, https://books.google.com/books?id=d3sLAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA437&dq=mariota%20cardney%20mistress&pg=PA108#v=onepage&q&f=true, https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carving_of_Saint_Andrew.JPG#mw-jump-to-license, https://www.visitscotland.com/info/see-do/dumbarton-castle-p248621, Dundonald Castle, Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland, overlooking-Village of Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland, Scottish Battles, Conflicts and other events - Main Page, Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, Euphemia de Ross, Queen Consort of Scotland, Unknown Mistress(es) of Robert ll King of Scots, Thomas Stewart, Bishop of St Andrews, Dunkeld and Dunblane, Johanna “Jean” Stewart, Princess of Scots, David Stewart, Prince of Scotland, 1st Earl of Caithness, Egidia Stewart, of Lounane, Princess of Scotland, Sir John " The Red" Stewart, of Dundonald, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102097.